History of Africa

Africa is a very large and diverse continent, probably the most diverse continent on this Earth; it also has the biggest river on Earth the Nile river. The Nile river was a very important part of the early civilizations in Africa.

The Main Ancient African Civilizations 

Egypt was the strongest and most well known of the ancient civilizations in Africa; Egypt was mostly ruled by Pharaohs. Even though Egypt is in a dessert it still was an agricultural nation, thanks to the Nile river.

The ancient civilization of Persia invaded and conquered Egypt, but over time the Egyptians regained their freedom. Egypt was again conquered in 31 BC by the Romans; Egypt was under the control of Rome until Rome collapsed in 476 AD. When Rome was on its decline Egypt adopted a new religion, Islam.

Nubia was located south of Egypt and was on the Nile river; Nubia was known for its trading with Arabia and the Mediterranean civilizations, Nubia also began iron working.

 Nubia was mostly independent from Egypt after the rise of the Roman empire; Nubia declined in power though in 400 AD.

Ethiopia first began as a civilization in 500 BC, as the civilization of Axum; the civilization was built up in a way so it could trade along the Red Sea coast. Ethiopia originally was a very Arab country, but then the civilization eventually incorporated elements of Egyptian and Greek culture.

During the first century the country was very strong and wealthy, they were also ruled by a strong and stable line of kings.

Africa After 500 AD to 1750

After 500 AD, Africa slowly developed more tribal nations, but it still mostly remained as a decentralized continent.

European countries began colonizing the African coast, to harvest the rich African resources and promote the slave trade.

Conclusion

This is my essay on the history of Africa.

My Favorite Lessons From This Year of History

In this essay I will be talking about my favorite lessons from this year of history: I have two favorite lessons.

Lesson Number One

My second favorite lesson from this year was the lesson on The Artists of the Renaissance. This lesson was about different talented artists other than Michelangelo and Leonardo Da Vinci, from a period of history known as the Renaissance. 

The artists I learned about in this lesson were, Raphael(a contemporary of Da Vinci and Michelangelo, and was a painter), Botticelli(an Italian painter that used minimal contrast of light and shadow in his work), Dontatello(an artist that specialized in sculpting, especially sculptures in the style of reliefs), and Titian(this artist was very versatile in his work,and loved many different colors).

These Renaissance artists were very important to the development of art, and their influence is still seen to this day.

Lesson Number Two

My favorite lesson for this year, was the lesson, The Thirteen Colonies part two; the colonies that I learned in this lesson was Maryland, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Delaware.

The colony of Maryland was founded in the year 1632, by Lord Baltimore(Baltimore city in Maryland is named after Lord Baltimore); Maryland originally was used as a haven for Catholics, but eventually the Protestants overthrew the Catholics and gained control of the colony.

Connecticut was founded four years after Maryland. Connecticut was founded by a Puritan minister.

Rhode Island was founded in the year 1636, when Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson were banished from Massachusetts colony. Roger and Anne both founded their own colonies, Rhode Island and Providence colony. Both colonies were combined into one in 1663.

In 1664, Delaware colony was founded, before it was founded Delaware used to be part of Pennsylvania.

Conclusion

These were my two favorite lessons from this year of history. The reason why I liked these two lessons the most out of all one-hundred eighty lessons in my history course is because these lessons weren’t about one specific person but instead a group of people, which I found pretty interesting and educational.

The History of China and India

In this essay I will be discussing about the history of China and India.

China

 In 500 AD, China already had quite a few, impressive royal dynasties; these included: Xia, Shang, Zhou, Qin, and Han. But after the Han dynasty, China was divided in half. China was divided until 618, when the Tang dynasty(618-907), reunited the nation into one.

A new power arose in central asian, during the 1200s, this power was known as the Mongols, led by Gengis Khan. These Mongols tried to conquer all of Asia, and nearly succeeded. The Mongols controlled China for a time.

The Mongols power eventually declined, and the local Chinese rulers rebelled and regained control. A new dynasty arose known as the Ming dynasty in 1450.

In 1750 another empire began in China, the Qing Empire. 

India

The early civilizations in India were based in a valley called the Indus valley, where the Indus river runs. The Ganges river was close by and soon attracted people to move there.

Throughout India’s history, the government was constantly changing especially during the year 500 to 1750 AD. Some years India was a United country and others it was divided into many separate small kingdoms.

 India had two main religions(these are still the main religions today), Buddhism and Hinduism.

Buddhists believe in reincarnation, nonviolence, caring for all creatures: and they believe in one God, Buddha. Buddhists even have a holy text called the Tipitaka.

Hinduism is somewhat similar to Buddhism because, both religions believe in reincarnation and nonviolence, but Hinduism also had some differences. Instead of believing in one God, Hindu’s worship many Gods, they also promoted the caste system which was a system that separated people by class, which is surprising since the religion also preaches about being caring. The holy text for Hindu’s is called the Vedas.

Most of the Indian rulers focused on religion and other philosophical advancements, but some focused on expanding their territory. Indian culture developed much differently than Western or European cultures did.

Conclusion

 China and India are both countries from Asia, yet they have a much different culture and history, which makes the two countries unique.

The British Taxation Acts

The British Taxation Acts or the Navigation Acts were a series of laws that restricted the ability of the colonists to trade with any other nation except for Great Britain itself.The acts began in the year 1651, and gradually over the years became more and more strict, which annoyed and angered the colonists, this was one of the reasons of the cause of the American Revolution.

The Acts

The very first act of taxation was issued under the reign of Oliver Cromwell, this act was known as the Navigation Act bill, this act reinforced the standard that English trade should be carried in English ships. But the act was repealed soon after in the same year by King Charles the 2nd, after he was restored to the English throne. In 1660 this navigation act was reissued.

The navigation act of 1660 stated, that the crew aboard a ship had to be ¾ Englishmen, and that the colonists could only trade to England or other English colonies. In 1663 that act got even more strict, by restricting trade access even more; this time the act demanded that all goods and products from Europe headed to the colonies had to pass through England and be carried on English ships. These acts increased the amount of time it took to ship goods to the colonists, and the cost.

In 1773 another act was issued, this one was called the Molasses Act, this was another variation to the navigation act. This act required a high import tax on any sugar from the French West Indies. This benefited the English sugar growers, since they could charge a higher price for the sugar they were selling to the colonists. The colonists heavily ignored the act though. They turned to smuggling, bribery, and intimidation of the customs officers, to get their sugar.

The Currency Act was issued in 1751. This act was designed to favor the best interests of the British merchants, who were being repaid with the depreciated currency of the colonies.

The currency in the colonies was heavily inflated, this was because they still had to pay off the costs from the Seven Years War. The merchants wanted to be paid more to compensate for inflation.

The act was extended further in 1764, this time the act allowed the colonies to have their own form of currency, but any newly issued money could not be used to pay off public or private debts. The colonies were very short on gold and silver, which caused a very tight money supply.

 Conclusion

These acts were lessoned in 1774, but the damage was still done. The colonists realized that Parliament was not acting in the colonists’ best interests. This was one of the reasons for the cause of the American Revolution.

The Acts of Union

The Acts of Union were two Parliamentary acts, which joined England and Scotland together as a single nation, Great Britain.

Before

England and Scotland had separate governments and monarchs until 1603, when James the 5th of Scotland was crowned King of England. This was because he was the closest relative of Queen Elizabeth.

Even though the two countries had the same King they both had separate parliaments, and did not want to join together into one nation.

The Attempts

There were three total attempts to join the two countries by the Act of Parliament. These attempts were in the years 1606, 1667, and 1689; but either England or Scotland discouraged the idea; finally in 1702, when Queen Anne became Queen that all changed.

In 1702, Queen Anne’s main goal was to organize a union treaty between Scotland and England, and in 1706 both England and Scotland decided to work out there differences since both countries had compelling reasons to join together.

Scotland who had very free spirited people that wanted to stay independent from England. England had tried many times to take over Scotland forcefully, but the attempts never worked in the long run, but in 1706, both countries felt that they could both benefit greatly by joining together, even though they had to give up their national independence.

The Acts

Scotland and England both had things they wanted to gain; Scotland wanted to gain access to colonial markets after their first and only colony of Caledonia was a huge disaster and failure, England wanted to ensure that the rulers of both England and Scotland would remain the same, this would prevent any future religious wars.

The Treaty of Union was made official in the year 1707, which combined the two nations of Scotland and England together into a new nation called, Great Britain. The two parliaments were merged into one.

The Scottish Presbyterian Church which was opposed to the Act soon became less opposing since another Act was made to secure the rights of the Church of Scotland.

Conclusion

This is my essay on the Acts of Union.


George Whitefield

George Whitefield was one of the most recognized pastors during a time known as the Great Awakening. Which was the revival of religion in the early colonies; this movement began since many of the colonists said they were Christians and they went to church, but their lifestyles did not reflect their “beliefs.”

Early Life

Whitefield was born in Gloucester England, in December sixteenth, 1714. His family was not rich. His parents were innkeepers. Since his family did not have much money, he did not have the money to attend college, but that did not stop him. He attended Oxford college, and paid the fees by working as a server for the more wealthy students at Oxford. During his time at Oxford he met the Wesley brothers(they later founded the Methodist church).

Early Career and Career

The Wesley brothers and Whitefield were part of a group that initiated the legalistic side of Christianity. Whitefield prayed and did other religious things in a routine like way, but he did not feel a connection with God while doing these routines. This frustrated him to the point where he cried out the name God in prayer one day, and after this he felt a connection. 

After this moment he became very passionate about things of God, this inspired him to begin preaching. He became quite famous for his preaching and people from all over came to hear him.

After becoming a preacher Whitefield decided to visit the American colonies as a parish priest. During his visit he noticed that the colonies were in great need of an orphanage; after noticing this he decided that this orphanage and preaching for the colonists was going to be his life’s work and career.

When he returned back to England he began fundraising for the Orphanage and preached at the same time.

Whitefield was not assigned to a single church, instead he worked as a traveling minister in the colonies. His voice was said to be heard from miles away, this allowed him to preach in front of a huge group of people without being amplified. Even though he had many followers and many who repented and converted because of him, he still had many people who disliked and scorned about his preaching, sometimes it would get so bad that riots would start. 

He even had an important role in the founding of America. He warned the colonists that the King would take away their freedom.

In 1770, Whitefield passed away. He was remembered as one of the greatest figures during the Great Awakening.


The Colonies of Virginia, Rhode Island, and New York

In this week’s essay I will be talking about three of the thirteen early colonies of North America, Virgina, Rhode Island, and New York.

Virginia Colony 

The very first of the thirteen colonies was Virginia. Virginia was named after the Virgin Queen Elizabeth by a man named Sir Walter Raliegh. The colony was established by the Virginia or London Company; Virginia officially started as a colony in 1607 with the colony of Jamestown.

The first year of the settlement was not really great. Only thirty two of the original colonists survived the harsh winter, and probably more would have died if not for the Native Americans you helped them with food. The next winter was also rough, many people died from hunger and unfriendly encounters with the Native Americans;when the harsh winter was over and some ships arrived the colonists were done, they were ready to leave, but when the colonists were just going to leave a man named Lord Thomas de la Warr(Delaware is named after him), who had just arrived from England with some more settlers and supplies, refused to let the surviving colonists leave back to England. After this the colonists slowly began to thrive and prosper, they made agreements with the Native Americans and learned how to grow crops on their own. They even began growing tobacco which they exported back to Europe which improved life greatly.

Rhode Island Colony

The colony of Rhode Island was founded in the year 1636, when a man and woman, Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson, were banished from Massachusetts. The two founded their own separate small colonies, Rhode Island and Providence Plantation; the two colonies were combined in 1663.

Rhode Island was mostly religiously tolerant except for its not so tolerant treatment to jews and quakers, many people moved to this colony for religious freedom.

New York Colony

New York was originally a province of the Dutch, but in 1664 the Dutch surrendered the colony to the English. The colony was named after the Duke of York.

The colony supported itself by the fur trade and farming along the Hudson river. New York’s constitution benefited the colonists since it gave them more rights then most of the other colonies.


How the Divine Rights of Kings Influenced the Monarchy in England Under James 1st, Charles 1st, and Oliver Cromwell

The Divine Rights of Kings, is a philosophy first introduced by Henry the 8th, who was King of England during the 16th century. This philosophy taught that a king is only accountable to God, not any of his subjects or the people he rules. This pretty much means that a king could do pretty much anything he wanted no matter what. And of course with this power the kings abused it, which is a bad thing. In this essay I will be talking about three kings who abused this power, James the 1st, Charles the 1st, and Oliver Cromwell.

James the 1st is actually related to Henry the 8th, he was the great great nephew of Henry the 8th since his great grandmother was Henry’s sister. James was born in June 1566. He was the son of Mary Queen of Scots. He was the crown prince of Scotland.

But this changed, since he was also related to queen Elizabeth who was the daughter of King Henry the 8th. Since Elizabeth did not have any children of her own James automatically became the official heir to the English throne. He was crowned King of England in 1603.

Like past Kings, James enjoyed his new power thanks to the Divine Rights of Kings. He believed he could do anything he pleased no matter what Parliament or the people thought. Parliament on the other hand believed that the governing of England was supposed to be a

partnership between parliament and the king. This caused so much issue that a civil war began during the reign of James son Charles the 1st.

During James’s reign, he wanted the Episcopal religion to move forward; he wanted it so much that he even made it the state religion. This was problematic for England and Scotland. He ruled both of these places. The reason for these problems was because Scotland had a pretty large number of Prestbyterians and England a large group of Catholics. So a conference was held known as the Hampton Court Conference in 1604, to discuss about some of the reform ideas. One of the things that was finalized and decided was that an authorized version of the bible was to be created, for the Episcopal church. This bible is now known as the King James version.

King James passed away in 1625 thanks to a stroke.

King James son Charles the 1st was born in 1600, he was the second oldest son of James. He originally was not crown prince but after his older brother died he became the crown prince. He was crowned King after his father’s death in 1625.

Charles like his father before him strongly believed in the Divine Rights of Kings. He was an Anglican, which is very similar to Episcopal. He appointed William Laud to be the Archbishop of Canterbury. The new Archbishop of Canterbury forced the Anglican faith upon the English, Scottish, and Irish (yes Charles also ruled Ireland). The Scottish people revolted after Charles tried to force the Laudian prayer book upon them.

The revolt began when a milkmaid named Jenny Geddes, who was at church one morning. The preacher was reading some of the Anglican liturgy. Jenny realized that the Laud’s teachings went against what she had been taught growing up; when she looked around to see the other people’s reaction to this, she was shocked, the people seemed very unbothered by the false teachings they were being taught. This annoyed her so much that she stood up, grabbed her stool that she was sitting on and threw at the preacher’s head. After this more Scottish people got inspired to do things similar to what Jenny did, this began the rebellion of the Scottish people against Charles.

Charles went so far with his belief of the Divine Rights of Kings that he even sent Parliament away, and ruled on his own for eleven years! But to only call them back after those eleven years. Those eleven years were named “The Eleven Years of Tyranny.”

The English civil war started because of many uprisings and rebellions that Charles caused with his wrong discussions. During the war, Charles and his allies fought against a man named Oliver Cromwell and his group known as the Parliament Roundheads.

Oliver Cromwell was born in 1599 to a noble but poor family. Even with the lack of wealth to his family name, he still managed to get into politics. He even became a member of Parliament in 1628. He was part of a group who was against Charles’s way of ruling. Eventually Oliver gathered an army against Charles. This army he was gathering he accepted anyone no matter the station of the person, as long as the person was ready to fight. Oliver lacked in military training, but he fixed this by studying old war tactics, becoming a genius when it came to military strategy. Leading his army, the Parliament Roundheads. His army captured Charles, and he signed Charles death sentence. Charles was beheaded.

Cromwell became Lord Protector of England, this basically means he’s like a king but without the fancy title. His reign was successful. After his death his son Rhicard succeeded him. But he was not very capable at being a ruler and was removed off of the throne, the crown was then taken by Charles the 2nd, who was Charles the 1st’s son. This all happened eighteen months after Oliver died.

Oliver was not widely liked though. Few years after his death his body was dug up from the ground, hung , drawn, quartered, and then his body was thrown into a pit and his head put on a pole to de displayed. His head was displayed on a pole till 1685.

Conclusion

This is my essay on how the Divine Rights of Kings affected the reigns of James the 1st, Charles the 1st, and Oliver Cromwell.



King Louis 14th of France

King Louis the 14th was King of France for seventy-two years, and he reigned during the classical age of France.

Early Life

Louis was born in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France, in 1638, September fifth. He was the son of a Hapsberg Spanish queen Anne of Austria and Louis the 13th, who was the King of France. Two years after his birth he had a little brother Philippe.

When Louis was only four years old and a little bit in May fourteenth, 1643 his father passed away, leaving him as the heir of the throne. Louis was crowned King of France, and his mother Anne regent, this was because he was very young.

He got a good and practical education, he was also somewhat of a neglected child since he almost drowned once thanks to not being watched.

His childhood was not exactly an easy one, when he was almost ten in 1648 the Parlement of Paris rebelled against his chief minister, Mazarin, this was an attempt to overthrow him. A civil war started called the Fonde. Louis suffered much during this time, these hardships included poverty and hunger, these suffering did help shape his personality as King though. Thankfully the civil war ended in 1653 thanks to Mazarin victory over the rebels.

Even though he was King and his mother regent, Mazarin the chief minister was the one that had the true power over France during Louis’s early years of his reign, but after Mazarin’s death in 1661 this all changed.

The Middle Years

After Mazarin’s death Louis began governing the government of France. After he began having more control he began reforming France according to what he liked. He had a goal to centralize and rein in control of France. He was able to accomplish with the help of the finance minister Jean Baptiste Colbert to get rid of the deficient financial ways and promoted industrial growth; he also improved France’s disorganized taxation, limiting the problematic borrowing ways. He created a more middle class society, and brought more Arts into France.

Louis is probably most well known for his overbearing foreign policy approach. In 1667 he invaded the Spanish Netherlands, and regarded it as his wife’s rightful inheritance, but this did not last and a conflict began known as The War of Devolution forced France to surrender the land back to Spain, except a few towns in Flanders. Louis was not happy with this so he got France to start a new war called the Franco-Dutch war, this helped France acquire more land in the Flanders region. This new position and the constant campaigns to expand the amount of

territories with the use of military force put France as a threat to other countries in Europe. In 1688 other European countries including Spain and England formed an alliance and a new war against France breaks out, this war is also known as the nine years war.

Later Years

Louis was a Catholic and he persecuted Protestants, he even went far enough to destroy Protestant churches and schools.

 After the nine years war France had managed to keep much of its original land, but financially the country was drained. His reign began to decline, especially after another war, The War of the Spanish Succession, which went on from 1701 to 1714, this war showed to many people that Louis had other interests above his country, since the war was too defend his grandson’s right to the Spanish throne. The war was long and expensive and France was financially devastated after.

Death

On September first, 1715th, right before his seventy seventh birthday Louis passed away from a disease called gangrene. After his death his five year old great-great-grandson, Louis the 15th inherited the throne.


William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare was a very famous English playwright and poet during the Elizabethan era.

Early Life

Not much is known of Shakespeare’s early life. His birth date is also unknown but he was baptized on April 26, 1564, and grew up in the town of Stratford-upon-Avon . He married young at the age eighteen to a woman named Anne Hathaway, they had three children.

Career

Evidence shows that Shakespeare may have started his career in theater, in 1592 as an actor and playwright. More evidence shows that in the early 1590s he was a managing partner in The Lord Chamberlain’s Men, which was an acting company. Records show that this acting company became very popular.  Shakespeare published thirty seven plays in total, and fifteen of these plays by 1597. He began his own theater known as the Globe in 1599.

His Works

Shakespeare’s plays were mostly written in these genres, comedies, histories, romance, tragedies, and tragicomedies.

Examples of his plays.

 His comedic plays are The Taming of the Shrew, A Midnight’s Summer Dream, and etc; his historic plays are Richard the 2nd, Henry the 6th and etc; his romantic plays are the Twelfth Night, The Tempest, and etc; and his tragic and tragicomedies plays, Macbeth, Cymblein, etc.

Death

Tradition says that he died on April 23, 1616, but this may not be true.

Conclusion

This is my essay on the life and works of William Shakespeare.