How Were the Ideas of Marsilius of Padua Evident in Louis of Bavaria’s Conflict with Pope John XXII

In 1314 during the Holy Roman Empire, something unusual happened. Instead of one king being elected, two kings were elected: Louis of Bavaria and Frederick of Austria. This was a disaster waiting to happen, things usually do not go well in situations like above. Even though these two were identified as emperors by everyone else the pope at the time John XXII did not grant them the official title of emperor. This led to the two emperors fighting each other, ending with Louis defeating Frederick. After Frederick’s defeat John XXII demanded Louis to surrender his titles, but Louis refused to do so. John XXII excommunicated Louis almost immediately. This went on like most conflicts between kings and popes. But someone who was influencing Louis at the time was a man named Marsilius of Padua, who was a philosopher. But how were the ideas of Marsilius of Padua evident in the conflict between Louis and pope John XXII.

To begin with, what were the views of Marsilius of Padua? His view was that the Church should not have political power, and that the pope was not a superior figure. For example the pope should not have as much power as an emperor, and should be below an emperor. But how were these ideas evident in Louis of Bavaria and Pope John XXII conflict? Well Louis went completely against the pope. For example he didn’t listen to what the pope said, basically showing that he thought what the pope said was not important. He also behaved in a way that proved that he thought the pope was below him.

In conclusion, the ways that the ideas of Marsilius of Padua were evident in Louis of Baveria’s conflict with Pope John XXII were: Louis going completely against the pope, showing that he thought the pope was not important, and in many ways showing that the pope was below him.

Some of the Significant Aspects of the Reign of Louis XI

Louis XI(1423-1483) of France ruled from 1461 until his death in 1483. He was a pretty committed king, and overall was successful during his reign when it came to obtaining his goals. Like every other king his reign was not perfect, and he had to deal with issues that jeopardized his reign. With that being said, what were some of the most significant aspects of Louis’ reign?

Louis was committed to centralizing France; for a while France had been very decentralized due to war. He believed that centralization would bring forth a stronger France. An aspect of Louis was the fact that he was a pious man. He also lived pretty simply compared to most kings. He wasn’t the most skilled when it came to war, he was far better at bribing, spying, etc.

Due to the fact that he wanted to centralize France, eventually representatives of five hundred noble families formed a league against him. His own brother, who was a duke, was at the head of this revolt against him. In 1465 Louis was forced to make concessions, and had to give up Normandy to his brother. He soon was able to regain it back though. In the end Louis was able to accomplish his goal of centralizing France.

In short, the most significant aspects of Louis XI reign were, being able to regain back his losses after a revolt against him, and being able to achieve his goal of centralizing France.

The Italian War of 1494-1498

The Italian War of 1494-1498 began when the king of France at the time, Charles VIII, had tried to make good of a remote claim that the Italian state of Naples was rightly his. At the time Naples was in control of the Spanish, and it had been under the control of the Spanish since the 1440s.

Charles conquered Naples in 1494 pretty easily, so he continued on to try to conquer Milan, he probably felt pretty invincible at that point. But he was betrayed, and eventually was forced out of Naples by the League of Venice which consisted of other Italian States. His forces began to die out from disease. He himself died in 1498 from an incident that consisted of him hitting his head on a door frame. This in turn was the end of the war.

In short, the Italian war of 1494-1498 did not amount to anything for the French, and actually was a complete loss. This is one of the many examples of how something looks like it is going incredibly well, but ends up being a complete failure.

The Rise and Fall Of Girolamo Savonarola

The Renaissance when you think of it today you think of a glorious time that was full of development. A lot of people during that time also thought similarly about the age they lived. But a man named Girolamo Savonarola thought the complete opposite of the Renaissance. Savonarola saw the Renaissance as sinful and immoral, and that people put the works of the ancient world in too high regard. His preaching was incredibly powerful, and captivated many. Because he had convicted many people to his preaching he rose up quickly, but his rise did not last long.

Savonarola preached against the spirit of the Renaissance, and captivated many individuals like I stated above, but things did not last long for him. He criticized the pope at the time Alexander VI heavily. He also had full support of the French who were Italy’s enemy. Also he attacked one of the most influential families at the time, the Medici family. Overall people had enough of him. But things turned for the worst when his followers used something he had said early on in his career against him. He had said that he would walk through fire to prove that his preaching was from God. After he had refused to do what his followers wanted, soon after he was arrested and then executed.

In conclusion, this is a relatively short summary on the rise and fall of Girolamo Savonarola. From his life it is pretty easy to say that anyone no matter how high up they are can come crashing down when it comes to life.

What Were Some of the Problems Associated With the Renaissance Papacy

The Renaissance like many people say was a time of change, or a time of development. One of the things that was changing during the Renaissance was the Church, or the Papacy in particular. Some of these changes were positive, and others were very negative bringing forth problems and conflict. There were issues associated with the Papacy during the Renaissance, but what were some of these problems?

Like I mentioned above there were problems associated with the Papacy during the Renaissance, the first of which was nepotism. For example a pope would elect his nephews or nieces to positions they were not worthy of, in other words he would elect them just because they were family. Another problem was the fact that some popes were having affairs, or relationships. Which is not allowed whatsoever. Another problem which was associated with popes having affairs was the fact that some popes had children! Again a Pope is not allowed to have children, be married, or be in an affair. The final problem is how some popes during this time abused their power, or thought they were above the law.

With that being said there were quite a few problems that were associated with the papacy during the renaissance. These problems included nepotism or Popes electing family members for positions just because they were family. Popes having affairs, having children, and thinking they were above the law or abusing their power. The church at this point in history was in much need for reform for multiple reasons including the ones above; this in turn brought forth a new movement known as the Protestant reformation.

Three Key Artists From the High Renaissance

When you think of the High Renaissance or the Renaissance in general when it comes to artists, most likely you think of these three figures: Raphael, Leonardo da Vinci, and Michelangelo. But who were these artists exactly? What were the major works of art from each, which they are still remembered for today?


Raphael(1483-1520), was a painter during the High Renaissance. He painted numerous self portraits, and other portrait paintings. One of his most famous works is called The School of Athens, which was a fresco painted between the years of 1509 to 1511. The reason why I chose this particular piece is because I really liked how it portrayed famous ancient philosophers and other important figures in action. Also I really liked how the piece portrayed how busy the scene was, while making it clear.

Leonardo da Vinci

Leonardo da Vinci(1452-1519), was another famous artist during the High Renaissance. He was a unique figure due to the fact that he not only was an artist; he was also an architect, inventor, scientist, and engineer. Today he is mostly known for his art. His most famous work in my opinion is the Mona Lisa, which was a portrait completed in 1503.


Michelangelo(1475-1564), is the last famous artist I will be writing about. Michelangelo mostly worked with marble carving, which was his main passion. One of his famous works is his statue of David, which is an incredibly realistic marble statue, which was completed in 1504.


 The three key artists from the Renaissance that you think of when you think about artists during that era are: Raphael, Leonardo da Vinci, and Michelangelo. Each of these individuals were pretty different when it came to styles of art, but they were similar in the sense that all three created masterpieces which are still appreciated and enjoyed today.

Three Artists From the Early Renaissance

The Renaissance was a time of development in many areas, one of those areas that was developing during that time was art. Of course there was art before the Renaissance, but art became more popular and mainstream during that time. In this essay I will be writing about three artists during the early period of the Renaissance. These three artists that I will be writing about are: Lorenzo Ghiberti, Donatello, and Botticelli.

Lorenzo Ghiberti

Lorenzo Ghiberti(1378-1455), was a very skilled artist who mainly worked with Bronze. His most famous work was done on the doors of the Florence Baptistry. The work included twenty eight bronze door panels, which included twenty on the life of Christ, four on the apostles, and the last four on the doctors of the church. This took him twenty years to complete.


Donatello(1386-1486), was an assistant to Lorenzo Ghiberti; he used his experience at Ghiberti’s workshop well. He mainly did sculptures, and his best work was his statue of David. He also did sculptures of secular objects. His works showed a lot of variety and individuality(which was very much Renaissance).


Botticelli(1444-1510), was a painter who was not very appreciated or well known until the mid 19th century. His most famous and well known work is the painting The Birth of Venus, which is a very well known painting today. In my opinion it rather represents what people think of the art during the renaissance.


Lorenzo Ghiberti, Donatello, and Botticelli are three examples of the talented artists during the early Renaissance. Each artist that I wrote about had pretty different art styles from each other, which rather proves just how diverse art was during the Renaissance.

What are Some of the Qualities and Strategies that Machiavelli Recommended to Political Leaders? How Does this Represent a Break With the Past?

Machiavelli was a political philosopher during the period known as the Renaissance. He wrote a book called, The Prince, which is all about the qualities and strategies that he himself recommended to political leaders. But what were some of these qualities and strategies; and how do they represent a break with the past?

The Qualities and Strategies

Machiavelli stated that political leaders did not need to have a lot of good qualities; instead they needed to appear as if they did have a lot of good qualities. Basically meaning that they needed to look good, but didn’t necessarily have to do good things. Another thing that he stated was that it was better to be feared than loved; but he also concluded that a wise political leader should avoid being hated.

So overall, Machiavelli believed that it didn’t matter that a political leader was a terrible person in real life as long as that political leader pretended to have good qualities. Also that it was better for a political leader to be feared than loved. 

How Does this Represent a Break With the Past?

This is a difficult question to answer for a few reasons, but I will say that the qualities and strategies that Machiavelli recommended were not drawn from Christianity whatsoever. This I guess was most likely a break with the past, because Christianity was so influential at the time, yet Machiavelli did not take anything from the bible.


Some of the qualities and strategies that Machiavelli recommended to political leaders were: political leaders did not have to have a lot of good qualities, instead they needed to appear as if they did have good qualities. Also it was better for a political leader to be feared than loved; but also it was not good to be hated if you were a political leader. The way that this represented a break from the past was because none of these qualities or strategies were drawn from Christianity. Which was uncommon at the time because Christianity was such a large influence at the time. 

In What Ways Does Petrarch Embody the Spirit of the Renaissance

Petrarch(1304-1374), was a very well known person during the Renaissance; he was a scholar, poet, and was also one of the earliest humanist’s. Through what scholars and historians have gathered about him, it is pretty clear that Petrarch embodies the spirit of the Renaissance. So in what ways did he embody the spirit of the Renaissance?

The first way that Petrarch embodied the spirit of the renaissance, is by his emphasis of “self.” For example he wrote a series of “love,”poems about a woman named Laura. But in these poems he described a lot about how he felt. In one of these poems he mentioned himself more than twenty times, and Laura only twice. Another way that Petrarch embodies this spirit is how he was into “worldly fame.” Also he climbed an entire mountain just for fun, which was rather unheard of at the time.

In short, the ways that Petrarch embodied the spirit of the renaissance was by his emphasis of “self,” and his desire of “worldly fame.”

Some of the Key Ideas From the Renaissance

The Renaissance, yes I mean the one that everyone thinks of when they hear the word “renaissance.” The Renaissance was a very important time in history, and was very influential in the development of western civilization. Even though there were many moments in history before the 14th century that embodied some aspects like a renaissance, the Renaissance that began in the 14th century by far was the most influential out of them all. Because of the historical significance of the Renaissance, some of the key ideas or elements of that era in history are still adopted today in the 21st century. So what were some of these key ideas from this very important era in history.


Individualism was one of the most important ideas from the Renaissance and the most influential today. Individualism promotes independence, self reliance, and the exercise of one’s goals and desires. Some examples proving that individualism was a pretty important idea in the Renaissance were: artists begin signing their work, which does not seem unusual whatsoever today but it was not previously done. Also another example is the fact that self portraiture was also becoming more common during the renaissance.


Humanism was another idea that became more common during the Renaissance. People during the Renaissance were becoming more individualist, which brought forward a new idea at the time Humanism. Humanism during the Renaissance was different than how people perceive it today. During the Renaissance humanism was basically a revival of the study of classical antiquity.


During the Renaissance people began having new interest in antiquity(in the case of the ancient world). People before did have interest in the ancient world, especially ancient Greece, but this interest had a lot to do with Christianity.  But now during the Renaissance people had an interest in classical antiquity for its “own sake.”


The Renaissance was a very interesting time in history. It was a time of revival for many things that were rather forgotten before. Like any time in history the Renaissance was also a time with new key ideas; some of these key ideas included: individualism, humanism, antiquity. Some of these ideas from the Renaissance are still influential today.