What was the English Civil War all About?

There were many civil wars or revolutions throughout history, some of the most famous include: the American Revolution, French Revolution, and the American Civil War. But there are many lesser known wars of this form, one of these was the English Civil War, which occurred during mid 17th century England, which was under the rule of Charles I.

The English Civil War had a variety of causes but some of these causes included, Charles’s religious policies which were targeted towards the Scottish, and his disagreements with Parliament, which were due to him being an absolute ruler or aiming to be an absolute ruler. So with all of these factors it did not take long for chaos to occur. The civil war began at a Protestant gathering in Scotland, where a woman threw her stool at the preacher. The war was mainly about becoming free of Charles I, which did in turn happen in 1649, with his execution. In conclusion this was what the English Civil War was about.

The Eutopians 

What kind of ideas were these “eutopians,” promoting? Why is it perhaps not a coincidence that this desire to rethink the organization of society emerged in the sixteenth century in particular?

Eutopia as a word means: “perfect place.” Eutopia is quite similar in sound and meaning to the word Utopia. The word eutopia usually refers to a society that has no ownership of property, or where everyone shares everything. In this society everything is about equality, there are no classes of people. This idea began to emerge during the 16th century. The eutopians are the individuals who promoted the idea of this society, and added on to that idea. Some of these ideas that these “eutopians,” believed included: everyone works to provide for the community, everything is shared, and there is no need for money. Well these ideas curiously enough sounds’ almost exactly like the view that is commonly known as communism.

But why is it perhaps not a coincidence that this desire to rethink the organization of society emerged in the sixteenth century in particular? The sixteenth century was a unique time because at the time exploration and the discovery of new lands was finally beginning to take off. With this new interest in exploration people in Europe began to hear tales about the people who lived in those far foreign lands, and how those people lived their lives. This gave way to people thinking more “out of the box,” or becoming more curious to new ideas. Thus leading people to see that there was not just one way to do things, including how a society is run.

In short, these were the main ideas that the individuals known as “eutopians,” promoted. Also the reason why this new interest to rethink the organization of society was not a coincidence during the sixteenth century was because at the time exploration to foreign lands was beginning to take off, which gave access to people in Europe to learn about other places and how those other places governed themselves. 

The Religious Policy of Elizabeth I

Queen Elizabeth I(1533-1603), is probably one of the most famous of the rulers of England. During her rather long reign she accomplished greatly. England at the time of her rule was divided with Catholicism and Protestantism; but what was Elizabeth’s policy on religion?

Elizabeth I did not exactly have a religious policy, since she actually switched from Catholicism to Protestantism quite easily. But she could not and would not abide to subject herself to the Papacy, which was why she removed the Catholic Mass, and forced everyone to attend the Anglican church. She was able to do this because she was the head of the church. From this point on Catholics were persecuted; if a Catholic was suspected to be Catholic, their homes would be searched and if they were found with Catholic theological books, they would be punished. Also Elizabeth did not agree with the fully Protestant side, which is shown in the persecution she encouraged toward the Puritans.

Clearly, Elizabeth I religious policy was one that could not exactly be called a religious policy. She was neither fully Protestant or Catholic; she enforced and encouraged persecution towards Catholics and Puritans, and was at the head of the Church of England. Regardless of all this, this was her religious policy.

Who were the Contending Parties in the French Wars of Religion? What was the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre? What was the Edict of Nantes?

The French Wars of Religion lasted from 1562-1598, and was a time of unrest between the Catholics and Protestants in France, which culminated into multiple wars. But who were the contending parties in these religious wars? What was the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre? Finally, what was the Edict of Nantes?

Who were the Contending Parties in the French Wars of Religion?

The French Wars of Religion had two main contenders: the Catholics of France, and the Protestants of France, also known as the Huguenots. Catholics and Protestants in other countries had conflicts also, but the conflict between the Catholics and Protestants in France was probably the longest lasting. 

What was the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre?

The St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre, which occured in 1572, was a wave of Catholic mob violence directed towards the Huguenots, specifically towards the leaders of the Huguenots. But it went far out of control, and caused more issues. This is traditionally thought to have been instigated by Catherine de Medici, who was convinced by her son Charles IX. The outcome of this was the massacre of thousands of Huguenots, in Paris, and other French provinces.

What was the Edict of Nantes?

The Edict of Nantes was issued by Henry IV, in 1598, which granted religious freedom to the Huguenots, and in turn ended the French Wars of Religion. Also at this point the Catholics and Protestants of France concluded that religious toleration was far wiser an idea than constant destruction and fighting.

Conclusion

During the French Wars of Religion, both the Catholics and the Protestants committed some pretty horrible things to one another; and for the longest period could not maintain peace with each other. Finally in 1598 with the Edict of Nantes, both parties concluded that it was best to be tolerant than constantly fight each other.

What Were the Causes of the Dutch Revolt? What was the “Demonstration Effect?”

Under the reign of Philip II, a revolt occurred in the low countries; this revolt is known today as the Dutch Revolt, which went on from 1566-1648. But what were the causes of this revolt? Lastly, what was the “demonstration effect?”

The Dutch revolt was mainly caused by the religious persecution enforced by Philip II towards the Protestants in the low countries. Philip II was a ruler who was not at all tolerant to Protestants. This persecution got to a point that even Catholics in that region had enough also. They believed that this persecution went too far. Thus this led to the Protestants and Catholics of this region to band together, to rebel against Philip. This revolt led to the freedom of seven of these territories, which in turn became the Dutch Republic.

The “demonstration effect,” on the other hand, refers to what people saw in other countries, and applied what they saw in those countries. This really refers to the Dutch Republic, which became a place of prosperity with religious freedom, private property rights, etc. Other countries saw the success of the Dutch Republic, and tried to replicate it. 

In short, the Dutch Revolt was caused by the religious persecutions toward the Protestants by Philip II. This revolt’s main outcome was the freedom and creation of the Dutch Republic, which was a place of more freedoms compared to other regions at the time. Other countries tried to replicate this; this is known as the “demonstration effect.”

What Were the Causes and Consequences of the Spanish Revolt that Occurred After Charles V Left to be Crowned Holy Roman Emperor

Charles V(1500-1558), was Holy Roman Emperor from 1519-1556; and King of Spain from 1516-1556. His reign resulted in the closest Europe would come to be under a universal ruler. Charles, though his territory was so vast, he still had struggles throughout his reign. One of his earlier struggles occurred when he left Spain to be crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1519, which caused a revolt. What were the causes and consequences of this revolt in Spain?

The causes of this revolt were mainly due to the fact that Charles did not speak Spanish, and that he actually wasn’t born in Spain. The revolt ended with Charles defeating the already weakened rebels. Thus these were the causes and consequences of the Spanish revolt.

Why is Ignatius Loyola Concerned About Careless Discussion of Faith and Works?

Ignatius Loyola(1491-1556), is considered to be the main founder of the Society of Jesus, which is a religious order of the Catholic Church. Before becoming a Catholic theologian, he was a soldier, who eventually began putting himself through a serious spiritual regime. He was concerned about the careless discussion of faith and works. Why was he concerned about this?

The reason why Loyola was concerned about careless discussion of faith and works is that he believed that this would cause people to not take responsibility for their actions, and instead wait for God to do something instead. Hence, why he was concerned about the careless discussion of faith and works.

What Did I Learn About St. Francis Xavier’s Missionary Work in the Letter I Read

St. Francis Xavier(1506-1552), was a Jesuit(The Society of Jesus)missionary, who was one of the key figures in founding the Jesuits. He traveled all across the East, and even wanted to spread the faith in China; unfortunately, he passed away before he could do so. For a school assignment, I had to read a letter by him to the Jesuits, which discussed his missionary work. What did I learn about his missionary work from reading this letter?

In the letter, we first learn that he was preaching to the Comorin’s, and residing amongst them. He stated that he had difficulties at first preaching to these people, thanks to the language barrier. But he also stated that the people he was working with were quite open to the faith, and many became Christians. He especially taught the children, which in turn would teach other individuals. After he had finished his work in one village he would move on to the next. Also in the letter, he said he worked with some Hindu Brahman, who was not at all open to the faith. 

To conclude, St. Francis Xavier’s letter to the Jesuits consisted mostly of how he preached to the people of Comorin; his struggles at first with the language barrier, and his struggle to convert the Hindu Brahman.

How was the English Reformation Different From the German Reformation?

The Protestant Reformation differed in each country, in the way it occurred, progressed, and the outcomes that came forth. A very good example of these differences during the Protestant Reformation was with the countries of England and Germany. How did the English and German Reformation differ from each other?

The main difference between the two Reformations was how they occurred, progressed, and the outcomes that came forth from them, as I mentioned above. For example, the Reformation in Germany was instigated by Martin Luther because he saw great wrong in the practices of the Catholic Church. The English Reformation occurred when the Church of England, during a series of events eventually led to its separation from the Catholic Church. 

Thus, the English Reformation and German Reformation differed greatly due to how both of these events occurred, progressed, and the outcomes that came forth.

Calvin’s Main Point in the Selection I Read From the Institutes of the Christian Religion

John Calvin(1509-1564), was an important figure during the Protestant Reformation. Calvin’s teachings were similar to Luther’s, but he went more beyond than Luther had. Calvin was well written, and his most famous work is his book: Institutes of the Christian Religion. In this book, Calvin emphasized many points, but his main point(at least from the selection I read), is predestination.

Predestination is the doctrine in which God has eternally chosen those he wants to save. Which in short means that individuals who have been predestined for hell will not have a chance or hope to ever receive salvation. Individuals who are predestined to go to heaven are forced to take this salvation. 

Predestination is the main point I noticed from the selection I read from the Institutes of the Christian Religion, by John Calvin.